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Bidar was the capital of the Bahmani kings from 1428 till it later passed into the hands of the Barid Shahi dynasty. There are some beautiful specimens of typical Muslim art and architecture here. Fragments of old colourful mosaics, grand old tombs of the Bahmani and Barid kings and an impressive 15th century fort that still encircles the town give Bidar its days-of-yore charm. It is a quiet place and not on most tourist itineraries. Bidar is famous for being the place where Bidriware, a form of silver filigree art, originated. Bidriware is silver filigree done in Islamic motifs and set against a dark background of blackened zinc, tin, copper and lead to create the most striking ashtrays, boxes, bangles and such. Near Bidar is the town of Gulbarga, which was the Bahmani capital before the honour shifted to Bidar. The old fort at Gulbarga still stands, as do some beautiful mausoleums and mosques.
History of Bidar
In ancient time, Bidar formed an important part of the kingdom of Vidharba, referred to in the Mahabharata. It became the part of the Chalukyan Empire in the 10th century.Bidar was the capital of the Bahmani kings from 1428 till it later passed into the hands of the Barid Shahi dynasty. There are some beautiful specimens of typical Muslim art and architecture here.Bidar witnessed many upheavals during the early medieval period. It was taken over by the Yadavas of Devangiri and later by the Kakatiyas of Warangal in the 14th century. It then became a part of the Bahamani kingdom in the 14th century.

The Bidar Sultanate was absorbed by the Bijapur Sultanate to the west in 1619, which was in turn conquered by the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb in 1686.Bidar became part of the dominions of the Nizam of Hyderabad from 1724 to 1948, when Hyderabad was annexed to India to become Hyderabad state.In 1956, it became a part of Mysore state, later renamed Karnataka.Bidar, along with Gulbarga, Raichur and Koppal are collectively referred to as Hyderabad Karnataka. Bellary, though ceded by the Nizam to the British in 1796 AD, is also grouped together with these areas.
Air :The nearest airport is in Hyderabad city, which is 136 km east of Bidar.

Rail : Bidar is connected by rail with Bangalore, Hyderabad and Mumbai.

Road : The town is also well connected by road with Hyderabad and Gulbarga (110 km). There are a few buses to Bijapur (246 km) and Bangalore (669 km).
Bidar is endowed with a pleasant weather for the greater part of the year. The summer season ranges from April to May and the weather in Bidar is generally hot during this period. May is the hottest month with mean daily maximum temperature of 38.8 C and mean daily minimum of 25.9 C. But during the hot months, one can expect some respite from intermittent thundershowers. By early June the south-west monsoon sets in and bouts of downpour lash the plains. During winters, climate of Bidar does not become too cold and the winter season lasts from December to February, a perfect climate to explore the tourist hotspots. December is the coldest month with mean daily maximum temperature of 27.3 C and mean daily minimum of 16.4 C. Clothing summer trips would require a bagful of cotton apparels. For a winter visit, light woolens would be the order of the day.
Tourist Attractions
Bidar Fort
The historical fort of Bidar was a stronghold of the Bahamani Kings in the 14th and 15th centuries is considered one of the strongest in Karnataka. It is known for its formidable defensive works. The fort is surrounded by three miles of walls with 37 bastions, most of them surmounted with cannons. This fort was a source of irritation to the Mughal rulers of Delhi, and was finally conquered by Aurangazeb. Ahmad Wali Shah built this fort and the well laid out gardens and other monuments within it, in 1429. This fort has five imposing entrances or Darwazas. In the center of this fort is the old city with its monuments and structures, belonging to the Bahamani era. There are important palaces within the ramparts of the fort. The Rangin Mahal, once the royal abode, has ornately carved wooden pillars and Persian artwork.
Guru Nank Jhira
Gurudwara Bidar is one of Holiest Place for Sikhs. Every Year this place attracts lots of tourists from all parts of the country particularly during the months of November and March. Legend has it that Saint Guru Nanak visited the place while the land was in the grip of a famine. The Guru performed a miracle at the request of the locals and a spring of water from the laterite rock mountain burst out. Till this day crystal clear water flows from the laterite trap. It is believed that drinking of this water cures many ailments.
The Rangin Mahal
Inside the fort was Mahmud Shah's palace. Within the Rangin Mahal one can find some exquisite artwork and wall carvings that reflect the excellent craftsmanship and mastery of the craftsmen of the period. Other important attractions within the Bidar fort are the Gagan Mahal, Diwan-e-Aam (hall of public hearings), Royal Pavilion and the Takhat Mahal. The Solah Kambh Masjid within the fort is the oldest Muslim construction in Bidar.
Papnash Shiva Temple
As per the local traditional saying, the Shiva Linga idol in this temple is one of those installed by Shri RAM during the time of his journey back from Lanka. The location of the temple in a valley is mesmerising to the eyes. Every year at the time of Shivrathri festival lot of tourists visit this place. A natural spring flows into a pond in front of the temple which is called 'Papnasha'.
Narasimha Zarna
The temple virtually runs into a cave water body and is one of the unique in the world. The water in the cave will guide the pilgrims to the idol. Narshimha Jhira Water Cave Temple At this place the Powerful deity as per the belief here is situated in cave of nearly 300 meters. One has to wade through water upto chest height to have darshan of the deity. It will be thrilling experience with bats and owls sitting on the roof top of cave but they will not do any harm to the devotees.
Veerbhadreshewar Jatra's at Humnabad & Changlare
Two very ancient temples of Lord Veerbhadreshwara in Humnabad Taluk one at Humnabad and one at Changlara village attract lakhs of tourists in the Month of January and November respectively for the yearly Jatra and cart pulling Mohotsav's. The temple at Humnabad constructed in 1725 is famous for its moving pillar.
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